Drone knowledge that everyone can understand

UAV is the abbreviation of Unmanned Air Vehicle. It is an unmanned aircraft that uses radio remote control equipment and self-provided program control equipment. It includes unmanned helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft, multi-rotor aircraft, unmanned airships and unmanned ailerons. machine. Broadly speaking, it also includes nearby spacecraft

From a certain perspective, UAVs can complete complex aerial tasks and various load tasks under unmanned conditions, so they can be regarded as "air robots." UAVs mainly include three platforms: fixed-wing UAVs, unmanned helicopters and multi-rotor UAVs. Other small drone platforms include aileron drones, flap drones and unmanned aerial vehicles.

Fixed-wing UAVs are the mainstream platform for military and most civilian UAVs. The biggest feature is the faster flight speed; the unmanned helicopter is the most flexible UAV platform, which can take off and hover vertically. Multi-rotor (multi-axis) drones are the platform of choice for consumers and certain civilian purposes. Its flexibility is between fixed wing and helicopter (thrust is required for take-off and landing), but it is simple to operate and low in cost.

According to different fields of use, UAVs can be divided into three categories: military, civilian and consumer. Military UAVs have higher requirements for sensitivity, flight altitude, speed, intelligence, etc.; Civil UAVs usually have lower requirements for speed and ceiling, such as low cost and relatively low range, but require personnel training and comprehensive costs There are high demands. Therefore, it is necessary to form a mature industrial chain to provide as few parts and support services as possible. Consumer drones usually use low-cost multi-rotor platforms for recreational purposes such as aerial photography and gaming.

The flight control system is the "pilot" of the UAV. The flight control subsystem is the core system for the UAV to complete the entire flight process (such as take-off, air flight, mission execution and return to the scene). The flight control of the UAV is equivalent to the pilot of a manned aircraft. We think this is the core of drones. A technology.

The navigation system is the "eyes" of the drone. The navigation system provides the UAV with the position, speed and flight attitude of the reference coordinate system, and guides it to fly according to the specified route, which is equivalent to the navigator in the manned aircraft system. There are two main types of UAV navigation systems: non-autonomous (GPS, etc.) and autonomous (inertial guidance).

Power system turbines are expected to gradually replace pistons, and new energy engines will improve durability. The currently widely used UAV power unit is a piston engine, but the piston type is only suitable for low-speed and low-altitude small UAVs. Consumer-grade micro UAVs (multi-rotor) usually use battery-driven motors with a takeoff mass of less than 100 grams and a battery life of less than one hour.

The data link is the "kite-flying thread". The data link transmission system is an important technical part of the UAV. It is responsible for the remote control, telemetry, tracking and positioning, and sensor transmission of the UAV. The uplink data link realizes remote control of the UAV, and the downlink data link realizes the functions of telemetry and data transmission.